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Definitions beginning with the letter C


Cardiac ischemia

Refers to myocardial ischemia.

Cerebrovascular accident

Also called stroke, this event characterize the sudden death of some brain cells due to the lack of oxygen occurring when the blood flow to the brain is impaired by blockage (thrombosis, embolism or rupture of an artery to the brain (hemorrhage). The possible consequences are the following : weakness or paralysis of one side of the body with partial or complete loss of voluntary movement or sensation in a leg or arm, speech problems, weak face muscles, numbness, tingling. It could also affect balance disorder, vision, swallowing, breathing and even unconsciousness.

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

This condition describes a blood pressure increase in the pulmonary artery or pulmonary vein or pulmonary capillaries due to the blockage or narrowing of vessels by blood clots. This condition leads to shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting, and other symptoms, all of which are exacerbated by exertion. Pulmonary hypertension can be a severe disease which can result to progressive heart failure.

Clexane®/ Lovenox® (enoxaparin sodium) injection

A low-molecular-weight heparin widely prescribed to inhibit clot formation in venous and arterial vessels to prevent potential acute or chronic complication of venous or arterial thrombosis. Clexane®/Lovenox® is used in a wide range of indications including prophylaxis and treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) which may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE). It is also used to treat patients with Acute Coronary syndromes (ACS).

Clotting factors

A group of chemicals in the blood (factors I to XIII) that interact to cause blood to become solid and form a blood clot.


Is a sequential process by which the multiple coagulation factors of blood interact in the coagulation cascade, resulting in formation of a blood clot (insoluble fibrin clot). Coagulation cascade is a step-by-step process occurring when a blood vessel is injured or blood flow is disrupted: the end result is a blood clot (fibrin mesh) that creates a barrier over the injury site, protecting it until it heals.

Coronary artery

Arteries that surround the heart and provide blood, nutrients and oxygen to the heart muscle.

Coronary artery disease (CAD)

Also called coronary heart disease (CHD), this condition is characterized by atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries which may causes angina pectoris (chest pain) and myocardial infarction (heart attack). In all cases, once CAD is detected, the condition should be closely monitored and appropriate steps taken to prevent more serious conditions or death. Even with these procedures, lifestyle changes must also be made to help reduce the possibility of further heart problems.

Coronary revascularization

Also known as ‘reperfusion’, this is the process of the re-establishment of blood supply to the heart in order to restore its functionality. The two most commonly performed invasive treatment procedures for severe coronary artery disease (CAD) are percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.

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